History 103: The Roman World, Allegheny College, Spring 2016, Judson Herrman
For Fri. 22 Jan.
For Mon. 26 Jan.
- What geographic areas of the Mediterranean did Rome come to
control in the years leading up to 133 BC?
- What were the different social (= economic) groups of the Roman world at this time?
- How did the Senate exercise its control of the Roman world?
- What sorts of relations were there between Rome and other peoples
of Italy? (Think about the broad mechanisms, and don't worry about all
the details of the workings of municipia, colonies, etc.)
For Wed. 27 Jan.
- What was the background of the Gracchi?
- What reforms did they propose and put in place?
- How did their actions commence civil war?
- What did their reforms achieve? Consider p. 32 bottom.
For Fri. 29 Jan.
- What is the basic broad outline of the war with Jugurtha? How did
it highlight tensions in Roman politics?
- Who was Marius? How did his career highlight tensions in the Roman
political and military sphere?
- How did popularis causes advance and develop at the end of
the second century BC?
- Where was the Roman army active and how did it fare in battle?
For Mon. 1 Feb.
- How visibly does Sallust present his own opinions? Does he claim
to present an unbiased account, or is he visibly partisan?
- What are Sallust's political inclinations, popularis
or optimas? In other words, does he defend Senatorial
privilege, or question it?
- Why does Sallust choose the topic of the Jugurthine War for a
- Note the paper prompt and consider chapter 42. Identify for
discussion at least one other specific passage that is pertinent to
the questions here and on the paper prompt.
For Wed. 3 Feb.
- How does Sallust present Marius and Sulla?
- Does Sallust acknowledge any sources?
- How does Sallust use speeches?
- What sort of material does Sallust present that is not exactly
political and military history?
For Fri. 5 Feb. (Canali quiz)
- What caused the Social War and what was its result?
- How was Sulla able to gain control of Rome?
- How did Sulla's actions abroad and in Rome continue the trends
that we already seen with earlier politicians and generals?
- What measures did Sulla enact in Rome, and what was their effect?
For Mon. 8 Feb.
- How did Pompeius' activities in Etruria and Spain contribute to his increasing power?
- How did Pompeius' activities at sea and in the east contribute to
his increasing power?
- Explain how developments in the 70s and 60s showed a collapse of
the restrictions put in place by Sulla to limit the power of army
commanders, and of the restrictions to regulate the function of the
- How far east did Roman power extend as a result of Pompeius'
For Wed. 10 Feb. (Ditzel quiz)
- How does Cicero present his case against Verres? What kinds of
techniques does he use in this prosecution? Collect examples.
- What do we learn about senatorial juries?
- Why does Cicero speak in support of Pompeius?
- How does Cicero refer to his political enemies? Collect examples.
For Fri. 12 Feb. (Cardman quiz)
- What was the Catilinarian conspiracy? How did it start and end?
- What was the first triumvirate? What factors led to the creation and dissolution of this pact?
- Where were the individual triumvirs active; where were their power bases?
- How did the civil war between Caesar and Pompeius begin?
For Mon. 15 Feb. (Sampsell quiz)
- How does Cicero characterize Catiline? How does Cicero characterize himself?
- What evidence does Cicero have for his allegations?
- Does Cicero address the Senate (in speech 1) differently than he
does the people (in speech 2)?
- Consider the questions in the essay prompt as you read speech 4 (which is for the essay only, not for the daily quiz).
For 17 February:
- Why does Sallust choose to write about Catiline's conspiracy?
- How does Sallust characterize Catiline? Does he have any
positive or admirable qualities?
- What are Sallust's political inclinations, popularis or
optimate? Does he sympathize or give any credibility to the
cause of the conspirators?
- How does Sallust's account of the debate in the Senate
about the punishment of the conspirators compare with that of
Cicero in In Catilinam 4?
For 19 February:
- What did Caesar do in Gaul, Germany and Britain?
- How did the civil war between Pompeius and Caesar
begin and play out? Where was it fought? How did it end?
- What was the nature of Caesar's power after the
victory in the Civil War, and how did he wield this power?
- Why and how was Caesar killed?
For 22 February (Turin quiz):
- What effect does Caesar create by narrating so short a
time in so much detail? (The first book covers select
events from the first part of the year 49 BC.) How do his
narrative choices justify and explain his own actions?
- How does Caesar present the beginning and causes of
- At the end of Book 1 does Caesar respond to those
causes? Do his methods and actions show him addressing
the problems that led to the war?
- What do we learn about Caesar as a leader and as a
For 24 February (Stouffer quiz):
- What kind of narrative selections does Caesar make?
What kinds of material are presented, and what is left out?
- How does Caesar describe affairs in the city of Rome,
as opposed to the campaigns elsewhere?
- When Caesar crosses to northwest Greece and faces
Pompeius himself, how does the campaigning and the
narrative of it change?
- Does Caesar present any material that casts a
negative light upon him? Caesar will flee in defeat from
Dyrrachium. How is that failure depicted in Caesar's
For 26 February (Feldman quiz):
- How does Caesar present his defeat at Dyrrachium?
- How does Caesar present the battle of Pharsalus? How does he
justify the killing of Romans?
- Note the essay prompt for March 2. How does 3.72 connect with
larger themes in the Bellum Civile?
- Why does Caesar choose to end his narrative with events in Egypt?
For 29 February:
- What were the backgrounds of Antonius and Octavian?
- What claim to power did Octavian and Antonius have
after Caesar died?
- Why did Antonius and Octavian work together from 43
until the mid 30s?
- How did Octavian end up in control of the Roman world
For 2 March:
- How does the second Philippic compare with other speeches
- How does the speech reflect the change in political climate after the death of Caesar?
- What are the elements of invective (look it up!) in the speech?
- How can we use the speech as a historical source?
For 4 March (Rupp quiz):
- What economic factors affected life in Italy in the late Republic?
- What role did the aristocracy and the knights play?
- What was the nature of urban life, and how was it distinct from
life in Italy and the provinces?
- How did Roman provincial administration operate?
For 7 March (Charewicz quiz):
- In what areas was the influence of Greek culture manifest in Rome?
- Consider the literary context for Sallust, Cicero, and
Caesar. What do their works have in common with other examples of
- What was distinctive about Roman law? Does Scullard's description
cast light on his tendency throughout the book to focus on legal
- What was distinctive about Roman philosophy and religion? In what
way was it unique?
For 9 March:
- How did Octavian aim to end civil wars and establish his pricipate
in the first decade after the battle of Actium?
- After his rule was well established, what role did Augustus hold
in the political functioning of the state? In what ways did he have
- How did Augustus' rule change the city of Rome, and life for the
- How did Augustus influence prominent writers?
For 11 March (Brindle quiz):
- How do the first two books emphasize the future greatness of Rome?
- What role does Venus play?
- What is the sequence of events? How does the narrative of the poem
look forward and backward in time?
- How does Aeneas embody Roman virtues? What are his virtuous qualities?
For 14 March:
- How does the story of the wanderings of Aeneas recall the
wanderings of Odysseus in the Odyssey?
- How do Italy and Actium appear in the account of the wanderings?
- Identify a particular simile for discussion. What are the specific
items that are compared, and how does the comparison add to the effect
of the poem or narrative?
- Does Aeneas continue to embody Roman virtues? Does Dido represent
different moral qualities?
For 16 March:
- How do the athletic contests in Book 5 depict unity and friction among the Trojans?
- What are the last obstacles and difficulties that hinder and delay the fated arrival at Italy?
- How does the visit to the underworld look backward and forward?
- How does Anchises depict the future of Rome?
For 18 March:
- How does book 7 signal a new beginning, the start of the second half of the poem?
- How is war depicted?
- How is the future site of Rome presented?
- How is Aeneas' shield described?
For 28 March:
- How is Turnus characterized?
- What key themes of the poem are encapsulated in the story of Nisus
- What role do the gods take in the battle?
- How is Aeneas depicted as a warrior?
For 30 March (Veney quiz):
- How does the poem depict death and burial?
- What role does Camilla play in the poem?
- How is the larger conflict resolved?
- On what note does the poem end?
For 1 April (Collins quiz):
- How did Augustus reform the army?
- Why and how did provincial policy differ among different regions of the Empire?
- How were the provinces administered?
- How did Augustus' policies change over time?
For 4 April:
- How did Tiberius come to power? Who were the other contenders for the throne?
- How did Tiberius' career change over time? What role did Sejanus play?
- What are some examples of "Gaius' tyranny and oppression"? Was his
leadership completely unhinged?
For 6 April:
- How does Tacitus begin his account?
- How is Germanicus contrasted with Livia and Tiberius? What do we
learn about the attitude of the army to Tiberius and
Germanicus? How does Germanicus' behavior contrast with that
of the generals of the old Republic?
- What was the effect on the Senate of the law
For 8 April (Cowles-Costigan quiz):
- How does Tacitus depict Tiberius and the Senate?
- How are Germanicus and Piso characterized?
- How are Agripinna and Plancina characterized?
For 11 April:
- How does the Book 3 account of Piso's involvement in Germanicus'
death compare to the version presented in Book 2?
- What attitude did Tiberius take toward Piso's trial? What was the outcome of the trial?
- How does Tacitus present the rebellion in Gaul?
- What does Tacitus see as the role of the historian (chapter 3.65)?
For 13 April (Johnson quiz):
- How does Tacitus talk about his role as a historian, his subject matter and his sources?
- What is the point of the account of the trial of Cremutius Cordus (4.34-35)?
- How is Sejanus depicted?
- Is Agripinna presented in a similar fashion to Germanicus?
- Why does Tiberius retire to Capri?
For 15 April:
- How did Claudius update and reform the policies of Augustus and Tiberius?
- Were Claudius' relations with the Senate different than Tiberius' experience?
- How did military and provincial affairs develop under Claudius?
For 18 April:
- Does Book 6 depict Tiberius in an even more negative light than
did earlier books?
- How are the affairs of Messalina used as a device to characterize Claudius?
- Whar positive traits of Claudius are highlighted?
- On what topics does Tacitus make digressions?
For 20 April (O'Connor quiz):
- How is Agripinna characterized? How does she compare to Messalina?
In what ways does her role change the presentation of Claudius'?
- How is Nero introduced? How is his character developed?
- On what topics does Tacitus make digressions?
- How is the succession from Claudius to Nero presented?
For 22 April: consider Tacitus essay topics 1 and 2 as you
read book 13; be prepared to identify and discuss relevant
For 25 April: consider Tacitus essay topics 3 and 4 as you
read book 14; be prepared to identify and discuss relevant
For 27 April: consider Tacitus essay topics 5 as you
read books 15-16; be prepared to identify and discuss relevant
For 29 April (Van Trease quiz):
- In what regards was Nero an effective ruler early in his reign?
- How was Agrippina's influence visible?
- How did Nero's character and rule change in later years?
- What crises arose in the later years of Nero's rule?
For 2 May (Zhang quiz):
- What were the main economic trends in the first century AD?
- How did life change for members of various classes?
- What aspects of social life does Scullard discuss?
- How much of the material that Scullard discusses is visible in Tacitus?
- How did Roman architecture change and develop in the first century AD?
- What were the trends in literature of the period?
- How did Roman (i.e. pagan) religion change?
- How were judaism and christianity distinct from other religions of the time?